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Presentation over Translation Arabic-English-Arabic
What is Translation?
As a subject, translation is defined as all the processes and methods used to convey meaning of the source language into the target language by means of:
* The verb “translate” has been equated with synonyms such as “reader” , “rephrase” , “transmit” , “re-express” “replace”.
We “render”, “reproduce”, “convey”, and “transfer”
- According to New mark (1981) translation is an attempt to replace a message or a statement in one language by the same message or statement in another language.
- For Catford (1965) translation is “the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL)’ (20).
- Nida (1964) defines translation in terms of the receptor’s understanding of the translated text, in other words, the intelligibility of the TL text. Accordingly, translation is “ reproducing in the receptor’s language the closest equivalent of the message of the SL, first in terms of meaning and then in terms of style”
What all definitions agree on are the following:
- Translation involves determining two extremes at the same time; the SL demands and the TL demands.
- Translation involves thinking and rethinking, expressing and re-expressing.
- Translation involves “equivalence” in respect of different levels of presentation (equivalent in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (Word-for-sentence) and in different degrees (fully or partially equivalent)
What do we translate?
We translate nothing but “MEANING”.
What is Meaning?
It is a complicated network of language components.
It is the product of different elements of language. Taken together occurring in a certain type of texts and contexts, and directed to a certain kind of readership.
Download Translation Course Arabic-English-Arabic
Advanced English-Arabic Translation Practical Guide
Approaches to Translation
Arabic-English-Arabic Translation Issues and strategies
Translation as problems and solutions
In Other Words: A coursebook on translation, Second edition
Introduction to Translation
The Routledge Course in Translation Annotation
Solving Translation Problems at Word Level
The Georgetown Guide to Arabic-English Translation
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- Advanced Composition and Introduction to Research
- Introduction to linguistics
- Introduction to Cultural Studies
- Translation (Arabic-English-Arabic)